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Category: Child Rights

WHEN AN ABUSED CHILD NEEDS HELP

WHEN AN ABUSED CHILD NEEDS HELP

A3There are instances when a child may need help or protection. An abused or neglected child, for example, might need intervention with the state’s help. Fortunately, the Children’s Act, 2005 (Act 38 of 2005) gives effect to the rights of children contained in our constitution. These rights are carried out by the Children’s Court, which is expressly concerned with the care and safety of children (under 18).

The Children’s Act differs from previous legislation about children and covers other aspects relating to their rights. For instance, the Act gives effect to The Hague Convention on International Child Abduction and of Inter-Country Adoption. It also makes new provisions for the adoption of children.

What is The Children’s Act?

The Children’s Act deals specifically with matters regarding children’s care and protection and should not be confused with The Child Justice Act, 2008, which deals with children who are accused of committing an offence. The Children’s Court plays an important role in the practise of the Children’s Act.

The Children’s Court deals with all matters relating to the physical and emotional wellbeing of a child. Some of these include:

  1. the protection and well-being of a child
  2. the care of, or contact with a child
  3. support of a child
  4. prevention or early intervention services
  5. maltreatment, abuse, neglect, degradation or exploitation

Children’s Courts have the responsibility to make decisions about abandoned or neglected children and also take care of children needing protection or care. The Children’s Court won’t make judgements in criminal cases involving children, however, a social worker may remove a child from their guardians or parents if it’s in the child’s best interest. To find a Children’s Court is not very hard as every Magistrate’s Court in South Africa is also a Children’s Court. The magistrate also acts as the presiding officer of the Court.

The Act and parental rights and responsibilities

The Children’s Act not only deals with children but also parents and guardians concerning their rights and responsibilities. Some of the parental rights and responsibilities includes caring for the child, maintaining contact with the child, acting as the child’s guardian and contributing to the maintenance of the child.

Going to the Children’s Court

There are some people who have a social responsibility and requirement to go to a Children’s Court if they suspect a case of child abuse. These people include teachers, social workers, lawyers, ministers of religion and nurses. On the other hand, any person may go to the Children’s Court clerk if they are concerned about a child’s safety and protection. You do not have to be the parent or guardian of the child to raise an issue with the clerk. A child also has the right to go to the Court with a matter as long as it’s within the jurisdiction of that particular Court.

The Court has a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, which is designed to make it as comfortable as possible for children. When the court makes a decision on what to do with a child it uses the guidance of a report from a social worker. The report highlights the best interests of the child. The Court will take into consideration the social worker’s suggestions. The Court order is not permanent and will usually lapse after a two-year period.

Reference:

Anderson, AM. Dodd, A. Roos, MC. 2012. “Everyone’s Guide to South African Law. Third Edition”. Zebra Press.

Justice.gov.za. The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, Family Law, The Children’s Act, 2005 (Act 38 of 2005). [online] Available at: http://www.justice.gov.za/vg/children/ [Accessed 19/05/2016].

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN SOUTH AFRICA

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN SOUTH AFRICA

A2In terms of Section 5 (3) (a) of the South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996 no learner may be refused admission to a public school on the grounds that his or her parents is unable to pay or has not paid the school fees as determined by the Governing Body. However, this Act does not make provision for independent “private” schools with regard to fees.

Section 5 (3) (a) of the South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996 has incorporated Chapter 2 Section 29 (1) (a) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996 in terms of which everyone has the right to basic education. Therefore no child can be sent home or refused to participate in certain activities or sports due to arrears school fees[1]. Public schools must provide for equitable criteria and procedures for the total, partial or conditional exemption of parents who are unable to pay school fees.[2] This means that should a parent find themselves retrenched during the third term of school, they can apply for subsidiary for the tuition of the last term and their child / children can continue their education.

The South African Schools Act[3] does not make provision for independent “private” schools. Private schools are governed by the Private Schools Act No 104 of 1986, which does not make any mention of arrears school fees and whether or not children are still allowed their right to basic education if their parents find themselves in a financial struggle. The Private Schools Act focuses more on the regulations of a school itself and how to become a private school.

The problem relating to this is the fact that the children suffer. At the time of entering their children into a private school, the parents are financially stable. However, what happens if a parent suddenly find him/herself retrenched? Furthermore, the above problem is aggravated by the fact that private schools are struggling to obtain funds from the Government for subsidies. Race-based inequalities in subsidies to independent schools have been eliminated since 1994. Since then, subsidy levels have differed somewhat per province. But extreme pressure on the non-salary components of provincial education budgets, especially in 1997/98 and 1998/99, has resulted in a sharp decline in the per learner value of independent school subsidies, and considerable uncertainty as to the future trend of independent school funding by provincial education authorities.[4]

[1] South African Schools Act No 84, Section 41 (7)

[2] South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996, Section 39(2) (b)

[3] South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996

[4] South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996: Rules and Regulations

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your attorney for specific and detailed advice. (E&OE)