Browsed by
Month: January 2014

TENANT AND LANDLORD: WHAT ARE YOUR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS?

TENANT AND LANDLORD: WHAT ARE YOUR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS?

A1bSandra would like to move into her own place but like many people she is unsure what a lease is and what responsibilities it will place on her. A lease agreement is defined as the agreement entered into between the tenant and the landlord for the leasing of a property.  The lease agreement regulates the rights and obligations of both parties and protects the parties mutually.

The Rental Housing Act No. 50/1999, as amended by the Rental Housing Amendment Act No. 43/2007, regulates the relationship between a tenant and a landlord, even before commencement of the lease agreement.

The Act determines that the landlord may not discriminate against the prospective tenant, his family or friends, including on grounds of race, sex, pregnancy or marital status. This applies as early as placing an ad for the leasing of a property or even during negotiations between prospective tenants and the landlord.

The lease itself does not have to be in writing to be binding on both parties and should a tenant request that an oral agreement be reduced to writing, the landlord may not refuse the request.

A written lease agreement must contain the following information:

  • The names of the parties, as well as their South African addresses;
  • A description of the property being leased;
  • The monthly rental payable and reasonable increases;
  • The deposit payable, if applicable;
  • The period for which the property will be leased.  Should the agreement not mention a specific period of lease, the agreement must indicate the notice period required should one of the parties wish to terminate the contract;
  • Any other consideration, besides the monthly rent, which may be payable;
  • A complete list of defects that are present at the time that the parties entered into the lease agreement. 

If the property is situated in a complex that has its own rules, a copy of those rules should be attached to the lease agreement.

The landlord must ensure that he/she gives effect to the provisions contained in the lease agreement.

As mentioned, mutual rights and obligations are created for both parties in the lease agreement. These rights and obligations include the following:

Tenant’s rights:

  • To jointly inspect the property before the tenant moves in and record any defects or damage to the property. This provision protects the tenant at the end of the lease period to ensure that the tenant will not be held liable for damages that already existed at the time the lease was entered into;
  • During the lease period, the tenant has the right to privacy and the tenant’s property, home or person may not be searched;
  • If the landlord fails to inspect the property upon expiry of the lease, the tenant can assume that the landlord acknowledges that no damage has been done to the property, and that the full deposit, together with interest thereon, must be refunded to the tenant. 

Landlord’s rights:

  • To request a deposit, in the amount agreed upon between the parties, before the tenant takes occupation of the property;
  • To receive timeous payment of the monthly rent and also to collect overdue payments, after a court order or order from a Tribunal has been obtained;
  • To receive the property in a good condition upon termination of the lease;
  • To jointly inspect the property within three days before the lease expires and determine if any damage has been done to the property for which the tenant should be held liable;
  • To recover the cost of repairs, should the property be damaged, from the tenant;
  • Should the tenant not give access to the property for a joint inspection before expiry of the lease, the landlord should inspect the property within seven days after expiry of the lease and utilise the deposit for necessary repairs. The balance of the deposit, if any, should be refunded to the tenant within twenty-one days. 

Landlord’s obligations:

  • To invest the tenant’s deposit in an interest-bearing account at a financial institution, with an interest rate equal to or higher than the interest rate at that time earned on a savings account at such financial institution. The tenant may request proof that the deposit is invested and the landlord may not withhold such evidence;
  • To furnish the tenant with a receipt for each payment made by the tenant, which receipt should clearly describe the property, be dated, and indicate in full what the payment is made for (eg Rent for the month of February 2013, or deposit);
  • To utilise the deposit to repair any damage to the property or to recover arrears rent after expiry of the lease, and to pay the balance together with interest earned thereon to the tenant within fourteen days after the expiry of the lease;
  • To keep all receipts in respect of repairs done to the property which were deducted from the tenant’s deposit, and make such receipts available to the tenant;
  • To refund the tenant’s deposit together with interest thereon, within seven days of the expiry of the lease, in the event that no repairs are to be made to the property. 

Should a dispute arise between the parties, the Rental Housing Tribunal in the area where the dispute arises, can be contacted.

It is very important for both the tenant and the landlord to make sure that their intentions are clearly defined in the lease and that they understand the terms of the lease before the lease agreement is signed. Also that all provisions, responsibilities and obligations are clearly set out in the agreement.  It is advisable to seek legal advice if any uncertainties arise, before the lease agreement is signed.

References: Rental Housing Act No. 50/1999, as amended by Rental Housing Amendment Act No. 43/2007

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

HUURDER EN VERHUURDER: WAT IS JOU REGTE EN VERPLIGTINGE?

HUURDER EN VERHUURDER: WAT IS JOU REGTE EN VERPLIGTINGE?

A1bSandra wil graag in haar eie plekkie intrek maar is, soos baie ander mense, onseker wat ‘n huurkontrak behels en watter verantwoordelikhede dit op haar sal plaas. ‘n Huurkontrak word omskryf as die ooreenkoms wat tussen die huurder en die verhuurder aangegaan word vir die verhuring van ‘n eiendom. Die huurkontrak reël beide die regte en verpligtinge van die huurder en verhuurder en beskerm die partye wedersyds.

Die Wet op Huurbehuising Nr. 50/1999, soos gewysig deur die Wysigingswet op Beheer van Huurbehuising Nr. 43/2007, reguleer die verhouding tussen ‘n huurder en verhuurder, selfs nog voor die huurkontrak tussen die partye gesluit is.

Die Wet bepaal dat die verhuurder nie teen die voornemende huurder, sy gesin, familie of vriende mag diskrimineer nie, insluitende op grond van ras, geslag, swangerskap of huwelikstaat. Die bepaling geld so vroeg as by die plaas van ‘n advertensie om ‘n eiendom te verhuur en die onderhandelinge tussen die voornemende huurder en die verhuurder.

Die huurkontrak self hoef nie op skrif gestel te word om bindend tussen die partye te wees nie maar indien ‘n huurder verkies dat sodanige huurkontrak op skrif gestel word, mag die verhuurder nie weier om gehoor te gee aan die versoek nie.

‘n Skriftelike huurkontrak moet die volgende inligting bevat:

  • Die partye se name, asook hul Suid-Afrikaanse adresse;
  • ‘n Beskrywing van die woning wat verhuur word;
  • Die maandelikse huurbedrag, asook redelike verhogings;
  • Die deposito wat betaalbaar is, indien van toepassing;
  • Die tydperk waarvoor die eiendom verhuur sal word. Sou ‘n tydperk nie aangedui word nie moet die kontrak aantoon watter kennistydperk benodig word as een van die partye die huurkontrak wil beëindig;
  • Enige ander vergoeding, buiten die gewone maandelikse huurgeld, wat betaalbaar mag wees;
  • ‘n Volledige lys van gebreke wat teenwoordig is ten tye van sluiting van die huurkontrak. 

Indien die eiendom geleë is in ‘n kompleks wat hul eie reëls het, moet ‘n afskrif van dié reëls aan die huurkontrak geheg word.

Die verhuurder moet seker maak dat uitvoering gegee word aan die bepalings.

Soos reeds genoem word wedersydse regte en verpligtinge vir die huurder en verhuurder geskep met die totstandkoming van ‘n huurkontrak. Die regte en verpligtinge sluit onder andere die volgende in:

Huurder se regte:

  • Om die eiendom gesamentlik te inspekteer voordat die huurder intrek en enige defekte of skade aan die eiendom aan te teken. Hierdie bepaling beskerm die huurder sodat die huurder nie by verstryking van die huurkontrak verantwoordelik gehou word vir skade aan die eiendom wat reeds bestaan het by die sluit van die huurkontrak nie;
  • Tydens die huurtydperk het die huurder die reg op privaatheid en mag die huurder se eiendom, woning of persoon nie deursoek word nie;
  • Indien die verhuurder nalaat om die eiendom te inspekteer by verstryking van die huurkontrak kan die huurder aanvaar dat die verhuurder erken dat geen skade aan die eiendom aangerig is nie en moet die volle deposito, tesame met rente daarop, terugbetaal word aan die huurder. 

Verhuurder se regte:

  • Om ‘n deposito vir die bedrag soos ooreengekom tussen die partye, van die huurder te vereis voordat die huurder die woning betrek;
  • Om op ‘n gereelde basis en betyds, betaling van huurgeld te ontvang en ook, sou ‘n hofbevel of bevel van ‘n tribunaal verkry word, om agterstallige betalings te vorder;
  • Om die eiendom ná verstryking van die huurkontrak in ‘n goeie toestand terug te ontvang;
  • Om binne drie dae voordat die huurkontrak verstryk, die eiendom gesamentlik te inspekteer en vas te stel of enige skade aan die eiendom verrig is waarvoor die huurder verantwoordelik gehou moet word;
  • Om die koste vir herstelwerk, sou die eiendom beskadig wees, van die huurder te verhaal;
  • Indien die huurder nie toegang tot die eiendom wil verleen vir gesamentlike inspeksie voor verstryking van die huurkontrak nie, moet die verhuurder die eiendom binne sewe dae na verstryking van die huurkontrak inspekteer en, indien nodig, die deposito aanwend om nodige herstelwerk te verrig. Die balans van die deposito, indien enige, moet binne een-en-twintig dae aan die huurder terugbetaal word. 

Verhuurder se verpligtinge:

  • Om die deposito wat deur die huurder betaal is, in ‘n rentedraende rekening by ‘n finansiële instelling te belê teen ‘n rentekoers wat gelykstaande of hoër is as die rentekoers wat op daardie tydstip verdien word op ‘n spaarrekening by sodanige finansiële instelling. Die huurder kan bewys versoek dat die deposito belê is en die verhuurder mag nie sodanige bewys weerhou nie;
  • Om ‘n kwitansie aan die huurder te voorsien vir elke betaling wat die huurder maak, welke kwitansie die eiendom duidelik moet omskryf, gedateer moet word en volledig moet aandui waarvoor die betaling gemaak word (bv. Huurgeld vir die maand van Februarie 2013, of deposito);
  • Om die deposito aan te wend om enige skade aan die eiendom te herstel of agterstallige huur te verhaal nadat die huurkontrak verstryk het en die balans, tesame met rente verdien, binne veertien dae nadat die huurkontrak verstryk het aan die huurder terug te betaal;
  • Om alle bewyse ten opsigte van herstelwerk wat aan die eiendom aangebring is en van die huurder se deposito verhaal is, te bewaar en beskikbaar te stel aan die huurder;
  • Om die huurder se deposito binne sewe dae na verstryking van die huurkontrak, tesame met rente daarop, aan die huurder terug te betaal, sou geen herstelwerk aan die eiendom nodig wees en geen betalings agterstallig is nie. 

Indien ‘n dispuut tussen die huurder en verhuurder ontstaan, kan daar met die Huurbehuisingtribunaal in die area waar die dispuut ontstaan het, geskakel word.

Dit is baie belangrik dat die huurder sowel as die verhuurder seker maak dat hulle bedoelings duidelik in die huurkontrak omskryf word en dat hulle die bepalings in die huurkontrak verstaan voordat die kontrak onderteken word. Hulle moet ook verseker dat alle bepalings, verantwoordelikhede en verpligtinge duidelik uiteengesit is. Dit is raadsaam, indien enige onduidelikhede ontstaan, om regsadvies in te win voordat die huurkontrak onderteken word.

Verwysings: Wet op Huurbehuising Nr. 50/1999, soos gewysig deur Wysigingswet op Beheer van Huurbehuising  Nr. 43/2007

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

HOW MUCH LEAVE AM I ENTITLED TO?

HOW MUCH LEAVE AM I ENTITLED TO?

A2bCoco has had a wonderful offer. She and her family have won a free trip to the Seychelles, all expenses paid! But surely there must be a catch besides the one swimming in the blue water of these Indian Ocean islands?

Coco is a full-time secretary and has been working at her new company for just over a year, but is not sure how much leave she may be entitled to. According to the Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997, annual leave does not apply to employees who work less than 24 hours per month. This includes domestic workers. This means that temporary employees and independent contractors are included in this Act.

In terms of the Act, annual leave accrues to an employee. Thus the employee’s leave builds up every month. The leave accrues at the rate of one hour for every 17 hours worked, or one day for every 17 days worked, or 1,25 days per month. The total permitted minimum is 15 working days per annum on full pay in each annual leave cycle or in each period of 12 months, calculated from the date of employment.

The Act refers to 21 consecutive days. This includes weekends, which means that you will actually receive 15 working days, as a “normal” working week consists of five days.

It is important to note that the Act states that the accrual applies at the rate of one day for every 17 days on which the employee worked or was entitled to be paid. Public holidays are seen as working days since the employee is paid on those days as if they are working days and will thus be included in the calculation when determining annual leave.

This also applies to sick leave. If the employee has been booked off for sick leave and he/she was paid on those days, those days can be included in the calculation for annual leave, unless the employee has no sick leave days left, or has been on unpaid sick leave, in which case these days are excluded from the calculation.

It is common practice for some employers to deduct a certain monthly amount from the wages of a temporary employee or from the wages of an independent contractor, to put this money into a “leave account” to the employee’s advantage, and when that employee goes on annual leave or on sick leave, he/she is paid for those days from this account. However, this practice is illegal and the employer will be guilty of breaching the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, and is also guilty of fraud because he has defrauded the employee of a legal entitlement, namely paid annual leave and paid sick leave. If you are ever the victim of such a practice, you are entitled to sue the employer for damages.

There is no provision that states that employees may not take their annual leave days consecutively. Therefore, Coco will be able to go on her holiday, as she is a full-time employee who works more than 24 hours per month and has been working for a year, which means she has 15 consecutive leave days during which to enjoy her opportunity of a lifetime!

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

HOEVEEL VERLOF KAN EK KRY?

HOEVEEL VERLOF KAN EK KRY?

A2bCoco het ‘n fantastiese aanbod ontvang. Sy en haar gesin  het  ‘n gratis  reis na die Seychelles gewen – alle uitgawes betaal!  Maar  daar moet seker ‘n vangplek wees en ek bedoel nie die plek waar jy swem in die  blou waters van die Indiese Oseaan nie.

Coco is onseker of sy geregtig sal wees op betaalde verlof. Sy  is ‘n voltydse sekretaresse en werk reeds meer as ‘n jaar vir die nuwe maatskappy. Luidens die Wet op Basiese Diensvoorwaardes 75 van 1997, is jaarlikse verlofvoordele nie van toepassing op werknemers, insluitend huishulpe, wat minder as 24 uur per maand werk nie. Dit beteken dat diensvoorwaardes van tydelike werknemers en onafhanklike kontrakteurs ook onder hierdie wet val.

Kragtens die Wet, loop ‘n werknemer se jaarlikse verlof op. Dit beteken dat die werknemer se verlof maandeliks aanwas. Verlof loop op teen ‘n koers van een uur verlof vir elke 17 ure gewerk, of een dag verlof vir elke 17 dae gewerk, of anders gestel, 1,25 dae per maand. Die totale toegelate minimum is 15 werksdae per jaar met volle salaris in elke jaarlikse verlofsiklus of in elke tydperk van 12 maande, bereken vanaf die datum van  indiensneming. 

Die Wet maak melding van 21 opeenvolgende dae. Naweke word ingesluit, wat beteken dat die werknemer eintlik 15 werksdae kry aangesien ‘n “normale” werkweek bestaan ​​uit vyf dae.

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat die Wet bepaal dat die aanwas van toepassing is op die tempo van een dag vir elke 17 dae waarop die werknemer gewerk het of geregtig was om voor betaal te word. Openbare vakansiedae word beskou as werkdae aangesien werknemers op daardie dae vergoed word as sou die dae normale werkdae wees wat derhalwe ingesluit word in die berekening van jaarlikse verlof.

Siekteverlof word op ‘n soortgelyke wyse hanteer. Indien die werknemer betaalde siekteverlof gehad het word daardie dae ingesluit by die berekening van jaarlikse verlof, tensy die werknemer nie meer siekverlofdae beskikbaar het nie of met onbetaalde siekteverlof was, in welke geval hierdie dae uitgesluit word vir die doeleinde van die berekening.

Dit is algemene praktyk vir sommige werkgewers om maandeliks ‘n bedrag  af te trek van die tydelike werker of onafhanklike kontrakteur se loon en dit tot die werknemer se voordeel in ‘n sogenaamde “verlofrekening” te hou wat dan ten tye van die werknemer se verlof uitbetaal word. Hierdie praktyk is egter onwettig en die werkgewer sal skuldig wees aan oortreding van die Wet op Basiese Diensvoorwaardes asook aan bedrog omdat hy die werknemer ontneem van ‘n wettige reg op betaalde jaarlikse verlof en betaalde siekteverlof. Slagoffers van so ‘n wanpraktyk kan die werkgewer dagvaar vir skadevergoeding.

Daar is geen bepaling dat werknemers nie hul jaarlikse verlofdae opeenvolgend mag neem nie. Coco word beskou as ‘n voltydse werknemer omdat sy vir ten minste ‘n jaar lank meer as 24 uur per week vir die maatskappy gewerk het en dus sal sy kwalifiseer vir 15 opeenvolgende dae verlof.

Ons kan dus vir Coco gerusstel. Sy sal in staat wees om die vakansie van ‘n leeftyd te geniet!

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

SALE OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY AND THE NATIONAL CREDIT ACT

SALE OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY AND THE NATIONAL CREDIT ACT

A3bIt often happens during a sale of immovable property that the parties agree to a deferred payment of the purchase price. The purchaser will then pay the purchase price in installments and the seller will charge interest on the outstanding amount from time to time. Sometimes the parties even agree to the registration of a bond over the property to secure the payment of the purchase price.

But what the parties don’t keep in mind is that this agreement between the parties constitutes a credit transaction as defined in the National Credit Act (hereinafter called the Act) and that in certain circumstances the seller will have to register as a credit provider in terms of the Act. 

To establish if the Act will be applicable and if the seller should register as a credit provider one should carefully consider the following:

  1. The Act will apply to all written credit agreements between parties dealing at arm’s length. This is to probably curb underhand dealings between family members at the peril of other third parties.
  2. Arm’s length transactions are not defined in the Act but they exclude, for example, transactions between family members who are dependent or co-dependent on each other and any arrangement where each party is not independent of the other and does not strive to obtain the utmost possible advantage out of the transaction.
  3. The Act does not apply where:
  • The consumer is a juristic person whose annual turnover or asset value is more than a R1m;
  • The purchaser is the State or an organ of the State;
  • A large agreement (i.e. more than R250 000, such as a mortgage) is entered into with a juristic person whose asset value or turnover is less than R1m.

A credit agreement includes a credit facility, credit transaction and credit guarantee or a combination of these.  The relevance is the following:

  1. A credit facility requires fees or interest to be paid;
  2. A credit transaction does not necessarily require interest or fees to be paid. An installment agreement would suffice to qualify as a credit transaction.
  3. An installment agreement is defined and relates only to the sale of movable property.
  4. A credit transaction also includes any other agreement where payment of an amount owed is deferred and interest or fees are charged.

A mortgage agreement qualifies as a credit transaction [Section 8(4)(d)] and the importance is that mortgage  is defined in the Act as a pledge of immovable property that serves as security for a mortgage agreement.

Mortgage agreement is also defined as a credit agreement secured by a pledge of immovable property.

Section 40 of the Act requires one to register as a credit provider should you have at least 100 credit agreements as credit provider OR if the total principal debt under all credit agreements exceeds R500 000. Principal debt means the amount deferred and does not include interest or other fees.

It follows that if you sell your home to an individual in a private sale (i.e. where he does not get a bond from the bank) and you register a bond as security, you have to register as a credit provider UNLESS the principal debt is less than R500 000 or the buyer is a juristic person and the price is more than R250 000.

The implications for the seller could be far-reaching if he is not registered, as the agreement will be unlawful and void, and a court must order that:

  1. The credit agreement is void as from the date the agreement was entered into;
  2. The credit provider must refund to the purchaser any money paid by the purchaser under the credit agreement, together with interest;
  3. All the purported rights of the credit provider under the credit agreement to recover any money paid or goods delivered to, or on behalf of the purchaser in terms of the agreement, are either cancelled or forfeited to the State.

The application form to register as a credit provider and also the calculation of the registration fee that is payable to the National Credit Regulator (NCR) can be found on the NCR’s website. If the seller has not registered by the time he enters into the loan agreement he may still register within 30 days after entering into the loan agreement.

Sellers, be careful when you enter into these types of agreements as non-compliance with the Act could be a costly exercise.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

VERKOOP VAN ONROERENDE EIENDOM EN DIE NASIONALE KREDIETWET

VERKOOP VAN ONROERENDE EIENDOM EN DIE NASIONALE KREDIETWET

A3bMet die verkoop van onroerende eiendom gebeur dit dikwels dat die partye ooreenkom dat die koopprys afbetaal word. Die koopprys sal dan in paaiemente betaal word en die verkoper sal van tyd tot tyd rente hef op die uitstaande bedrag.  Die partye kan selfs ooreenkom om ‘n verband op die eiendom te registreer as sekuriteit vir die afbetalingsreëling.

Wat die partye egter nie in gedagte hou nie is dat daar dan ‘n  kredietooreenkoms tot stand kom soos gedefinieer in die Nasionale Kredietwet (hierna genoem die Wet) en dat in sekere omstandighede die verkoper verplig sal wees om as kredietverskaffer te registreer.

Om te bepaal of die Wet van toepassing sal wees op die transaksie en verder of die verkoper as ‘n kredietverskaffer moet registreer sal ‘n mens die volgende versigtig moet oorweeg:

  1. Die Wet is van toepassing op alle skriftelike kredietooreenkomste waar die partye op armlengtegrondslag kontrakteer.
  2. Armlengte transaksies word nie in die Wet omskryf nie maar dit sluit byvoorbeeld transaksies uit waar natuurlike persone wat in familieverwantskap met mekaar staan en interafhanklik is van mekaar of waar die een van die ander afhanklik is, en ook transaksies waarin elke party nie onafhanklik is van die ander en gevolglik nie noodwendig daarna streef om die grootste moontlike voordeel  uit die transaksie te verkry nie.
  3. Die wet is nie van toepassing nie waar:
  • Die verbruiker ‘n regspersoon is wie se jaarlikse omset of batewaarde meer as  R1m is;
  • Die koper die Staat of ‘n orgaan van die Staat is;
  • ‘n ‘Groot’ ooreenkoms ( bv. ‘n verband van meer as R250 000) aangegaan word met ‘n regspersoon wie se batewaarde of jaarlikse omset minder as R1m is.

‘n Kredietooreenkoms sluit in ‘n kredietfasiliteit, ‘n krediettransaksie en ‘n kredietwaarborg  of ‘n kombinasie daarvan. Die relevansie is dat:

  1. ‘n Kredietfasiliteit vereis dat fooie en rente betaal moet word ;
  2. ‘n Krediettransaksie nie noodwendig vereis dat rente of fooie betaalbaar is nie;
  3. ‘n Afbetalingsooreenkoms sal kwalifiseer as ‘n krediettransaksie. ‘n Afbetalingsooreenkoms is slegs op die verkoop van roerende eiendom van toepassing;
  4. ‘n Krediettransaksie ook enige ander ooreenkoms insluit waarkragtens betaling uitgestel is en fooie en rente gehef word.

‘n Verband kwalifiseer as ‘n krediettransaksie [Artikel 8(4)(d)] en die belangrikheid hiervan is dat die Wet ‘n verband definieer as ” ‘n pand van onroerende eiendom wat as sekuriteit dien vir die verbandooreenkoms”.

‘n Verbandooreenkoms word gedefinieer as: ” ‘n kredietooreenkoms wat gesekureer word deur die pand van onroerende eiendom.”

Artikel  40 van die Wet bepaal dat ‘n kredietgewer moet registreer as ‘n kredietverskaffer indien hy in meer as 100 kredietooreenkomste die kredietverskaffer is of waar die totale hoofskuld verskuldig aan die kredietverskaffer die bedrag van R500 000 oorskry. Die uitgestelde betalingsbedrag wat nie fooie of rente insluit nie staan bekend as die hoofskuld.

Dit is dus duidelik dat as ‘n persoon sy onroerende eiendom verkoop aan ‘n individu  (en die koper nie ‘n lening van ‘n bank verkry nie) en die partye ‘n verband op die eiendom registreer as sekuriteit, die verkoper as kredietverskaffer moet registreer, tensy die hoofskuld minder as R500 000 is of die koper ‘n regspersoon is en die hoofskuld meer as R250 000 is.

Indien die verkoper  nie geregistreer het nie kan die implikasies daarvan vir die verkoper verreikende gevolge inhou aangesien die ooreenkoms nietig kan wees. In so ‘n geval sal die hof moet beveel dat:

  1. Die kredietooreenkoms nietig is vanaf die datum waarop die ooreenkoms aangegaan is;
  2. Die kredietverskaffer alle bedrae wat reeds betaal is kragtens die ooreenkoms, met rente  aan die verbruiker moet terugbetaal;
  3. Alle regte van die verkoper ingevolge die kredietooreenkoms om uitstaande bedrae te vorder, gekanselleer word of verbeurd verklaar word aan die Staat.

Die aansoekvorm om te registreer as ‘n kredietverskaffer kan gevind word op die webwerf  van die Nasionale Kredietreguleerder (NKR) en so ook die berekening van die registrasiegeld wat betaalbaar is aan die NKR. Indien die verkoper nie reeds met die sluit van die leningsooreenkoms geregistreer het nie, laat die Wet hom toe om dit binne 30 dae na sluiting van die ooreenkoms te doen.
Verkopers moet versigtig wees wanneer hierdie tipe ooreenkomste aangegaan word aangesien nie-nakoming van die vereistes van die Wet hulle duur te staan kan kom.

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

 

HAASTIGE HOND VERBRAND SY MOND

HAASTIGE HOND VERBRAND SY MOND

A4bDie klassieke geval: Mandie ry 31 km per uur oor die maksimum snelheidsperk in ‘n poging om tred te hou met die res van die motors op die pad. Sy is onder die indruk dat sy bloot by die vloei van die verkeer hou toe sy skielik flitsende ligte in haar truspieël sien.

Mandie aanvaar verkeersboetes as ‘n “lewensfeit“ en beskou oortredings as die buig van reëls eerder as die pleeg van ‘n misdaad.

Maande later arriveer die verkeers-kennisgewing in die pos en Mandie berei haar voor  vir `n swaar boete. Sy is egter geskok wanneer die kennisgewing haar verwittig dat sy in die hof moet verskyn en dat sy strafregtelik vervolg word.

Mandie en die meeste ander Suid-Afrikaners is nie bekend met ‘n wysiging aan Artikel 35 van die Wet op Nasionale Padverkeer wat in 2010 aangebring is nie, waarvolgens ‘n voertuigbestuurder strafregtelik vervolg kan word vir die oorskryding met meer as 30km/h van die maksimum snelheidsperk en dat die rybewys van iemand wat skuldig bevind word,  opgeskort kan word.

Hierdie bepaling  kan ernstige gevolge hê vir baie padgebruikers. Nie net moet Mandie vir `n kriminele oortreding in die hof verskyn nie, maar bestaan die moontlikheid dat haar rybewys opgeskort kan word en dat sy boonop ‘n kriminele rekord kan kry. 

Artikel 35 van die Wet op Nasionale Padverkeer

  1. Die term “oorskry” in Artikel 35 (1) (aA) (i) en (ii) verwys na ‘n snelheid van 31 km/h of meer bo die voorgeskrewe spoedgrens in ‘n stedelike area en ‘n snelheid van 41km/h of meer bo die voorgeskrewe spoedgrens buite ‘n stedelike gebied of op ‘n deurpad.
  2. Indien jy op heterdaad betrap word wanneer jy een van hierdie oortredings begaan sal jy in hegtenis geneem word. Dienooreenkomstig sal jy op borgtog vrygelaat word en aangemaan word om op ‘n vasgestelde datum en tyd in die hof te verskyn.
  3. Indien jy nie gestop is deur `n verkeersbeampte nie sal jy ‘n kennisgewing in die pos ontvang waarin jy verwittig word van ‘n dagvaarding waarin jy gelas word om in die hof te verskyn, welke dagvaarding op`n latere stadium persoonlik op jou beteken sal word.

Versuim om in die hof te verskyn ooreenkomstig die kriminele dagvaarding sal lei tot die uitreiking van `n lasbrief vir jou  arrestasie.

Die Wet vereis dat ‘n persoon skuldig bevind moet word aan ‘n beweerde oortreding voordat enige regsgevolge daaruit voortvloei. Aangesien `n snelheid bo die snelheidsgrens soos hierbo aangedui beskou word as `n kriminele oortreding, sal die staat bo redelike twyfel moet bewys dat die persoon skuldig is aan sodanige oortreding.

Die opskorting van jou rybewys vir die tydperk soos voorgeskryf in die Wet is nie ‘n opsionele vereiste nie. Dit is ‘n verpligte opskorting vir ‘n  tydperk van ses maande in die geval van ‘n eerste oortreding. Waar ‘n persoon skuldig bevind word aan ‘n tweede oortreding  kan sy/haar rybewys opgeskort word vir `n tydperk van tot vyf jaar en in die geval van die derde of daaropvolgende oortreding, vir tot soveel as tien jaar.

Hoewel baie geregtelike beamptes (landdroste) Artikel 35 (3) wyd interpreteer wat betref die opskorting al dan nie van ‘n rybewys, beteken dit nie dat indien opskorting van jou rybewys nadelige gevolge vir jou sal inhou, jou rybewys  nie opgeskort sal word nie.

Die eenvoudige beginsel geld: Spoed mag dramatiese gevolge vir jou inhou. Die dae van bloot net jou boete by die naaste verkeersdepartement betaal, is verby.

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

 

SLOW DOWN THERE, SPEEDY

SLOW DOWN THERE, SPEEDY

A4bIt’s a classic scenario: Mandie is cruising along at 31 km/h over the speed limit in an attempt to keep up with the rest of the cars on the road. She thinks she is simply going with the flow of the traffic when suddenly she sees flashing lights in her rear-view mirror.

Mandie does not take traffic laws seriously and has come to accept traffic fines as a “fact of life”. She regards transgression as bending the rules rather than the commitment of a crime.

Months later, when the traffic notice arrives in the post, Mandie prepares herself for a speeding fine but is shocked when the notice informs her that she has to appear in court.

Unknown to Mandie and most other South Africans, an amendment to Section 35 of the National Road Traffic Act (the Act) was enacted in 2010, in terms of which the driver of a motor vehicle who exceeds the maximum speed limit by more than 30 km/h may be criminally prosecuted and that, if convicted, his/her driver’s licence may also be suspended.

This provision could be disastrous for many road users. Not only is Mandie required to appear in court, but she could also face the prospect of having her licence suspended and, what’s more, receive a criminal record.

Section 35 of the National Road Traffic Act

  1. In terms of Section 35(1)(aA)(i) and (ii) the phrase “in excess of” means a speed of 31km/h or more over the speed limit in an urban area and a speed of 41km/h or more over the speed limit outside of an urban area or on a freeway.
  2. If you commit any one of these offences and are stopped at the time of the offence, you will be arrested. You will accordingly be released on bail to appear in court on a stipulated date and time.
  3. If you are not stopped at the time, you will receive a notification in the post that you will be summonsed to appear in court in a “No Admission of Guilt” matter.

The notice will inform you that a summons in terms of Section 54 of the Criminal Procedure Act will be issued and served on you. Failure to appear in court on a criminal summons will lead to a warrant for your arrest being issued.

The Act requires a person to be convicted of an alleged offence before legal consequences follow. Since speeding as described above is a criminal offence, the State will still have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that a person is guilty of such offence.

Furthermore, the suspension of your drivers licence for the period stipulated in the Act is not an optional requirement. It is a mandatory suspension period. One’s licence will be suspended for six months in the case of a first offence. Where a person is found guilty of a second offence, his/her licence may be suspended for five years and, in the case of the third or subsequent offence, for ten years.

Although many judicial officers (magistrates) have interpreted Section 35(3) as giving them discretion about suspension of your licence, it does not mean that if suspending your drivers licence will prejudice you, your licence will not be suspended.

The simple principle now applies: Speeding can have dramatic consequences, so do not speed under any circumstances. The days of simply paying your fines, are over.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.