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Month: June 2015



A1bThe administration of deceased estates is largely governed by the Administration of Estates Act 66 of 1965. Other acts that may also find application in this process are:  the Intestate Succession Act 81 of 1987, the Income Tax Act 58 of 1962 and the Maintenance of Surviving Spouses Act 27 of 1990. The administration of estates is a specialised area of law and it is common practice and advisable for persons who find themselves nominated as executors in a will, and who are not experienced in the administration of estates, to appoint an agent to act on their behalf. This article outlines the basic steps to be taken in order to liquidate an estate and distribute assets to the respective heirs.


The death of any person is reported by completing the prescribed notice form and lodging same within fourteen days of the occurrence with the Master. The surviving spouse or where there is none, the nearest relative usually report the death. The person who, at time of death (or immediately thereafter) is in control of the premises where the deceased died may also report the death.

Any person who has in his possession any document purporting to be the will of the deceased must, as soon as the death comes to his knowledge, deliver the document to the Master. Contrary to popular belief, it is not necessary to have a meeting of surviving relatives to “read out the will”.


An executor is an individual appointed to administer the estate and his main duty is to carry out the deceased’s instructions in terms of the will. The executor has authority to act only upon receipt of his Letters of Executorship from the Master, which entitles him to administer all the assets of the estate within the Republic of South Africa.


After lodging the preliminary inventory detailing the immovable and movable property, as well as claims in favour of the estate, the executor must advertise to all creditors in order for them to lodge their claims against the estate. These claims must then be investigated by the executor and if accepted, included in the Liquidation and Distribution Account (“the L&D”). The executor must determine the solvency of the estate (in other words, determine if the estate is able to pay all its debts) and, if provided for in the will, liquidate the estate in order to provide for payment of the creditors.


The executor must, within six months after issue of the letters of executorship lodge the L&D account with the Master, which includes all assets and liabilities of the estate, as well as the distribution to the heirs. If there are valid reasons for a delay in lodging the L&D, such as disagreements between family members of the deceased, the Master will grant an extension. The Master will, upon lodgement of the L&D account, scrutinise same and issue a questionnaire to the executor, should it be deemed necessary. The executor is obliged to answer any such questions to the satisfaction of the Master.


Upon the Master’s approval of the L&D account, same must lie for inspection for a period of 21 days at the Master’s office, as well as the nearest Magistrate’s Court. In the event that any written objections are received, they must be attended to by the executor as prescribed in the Act. Upon resolution of any objections, or if none are received, the executor may proceed to make payment to the heirs and transfer assets in terms of the will.


MHI Attorneys has a dedicated estates department, specialising in estate planning, the drafting of wills and administration of deceased estates. In most cases the delays in administering a deceased estate is due to a poorly drafted will and/or inexperience on the part of the executor.

Written by Michelle Taljaard
Candidate Attorney

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.



A1bDie bereddering van bestorwe boedels word grootliks beheer deur die Boedelwet 66 van 1965. Ander wetgewing wat ook van toepassing kan wees in hierdie proses is: die Wet op Intestate Erfopvolging 81 van 1987 , die Inkomstebelastingwet 58 van 1962 en die Wet op Onderhoud van Langslewende Gades 27 van 1990. Die bereddering van boedels is ‘n gespesialiseerde regsgebied , en dit is algemene praktyk en raadsaam vir persone wat benoem word as eksekuteurs in ‘n testament — en wat nie ervaring het in die administrasie van boedels nie — om ‘n agent aan te stel om namens hulle op te tree. Hierdie artikel sit die basiese stappe uiteen wat geneem moet word tydens die bereddering van ‘n bestorwe boedel.


Die oorledene se dood word gerapporteer aan die Meester deur die voorgeskrewe kennisgewingsvorm binne veertien dae te voltooi en in te dien. Die oorlewende gade, indien enige, of die naaste familielid rapporteer gewoonlik die oorledene se afsterwe. Die persoon wat ten tyde van die dood (of onmiddellik daarna) beheer het oor die perseel waar die persoon oorlede is kan ook die dood aanmeld. Enige persoon wat ‘n dokument in sy besit het, wat voorgee om die testament van die oorledene te wees, moet so gou moontlik na hy kennis dra van die oorledene se afsterwe, die dokument aan die Meester lewer.


‘n Eksekuteur is ‘n individu wat in terme van die oorledene se testament aangestel word om die boedel te beredder en dit is sy plig om die oorledene se opdragte uit te voer soos vervat in die testament. Die eksekuteur mag slegs die beredderingsproses begin na ontvangs van sy eksekuteursbrief vanaf die Meester.


Na indiening van die voorlopige inventaris waarin die vaste eiendom, roerende eiendom en eise ten gunste van die boedel uiteengesit word, moet die eksekuteur adverteer aan alle krediteure, sodat enige eise teen die boedel ingedien kan word. Hierdie eise moet dan ondersoek word deur die eksekuteur en indien dit aanvaar word, word dit ingesluit in die Likwidasie- en Distribusierekening (“die L&D “) . Die eksekuteur moet die solvensie van die boedel bepaal (met ander woorde, bepaal of die boedel in staat is om al sy skulde te betaal) en die boedel likwideer, indien daar in die testament daarvoor voorsiening gemaak word, sodat alle skulde betaal kan word .


Die eksekuteur moet binne ses maande na uitreiking van die eksekuteursbrief die L & D rekening by die Meester indien, wat alle bates en laste van die boedel, asook die distribusie aan die erfgename insluit. Indien daar geldige redes bestaan vir ‘n vertraging in die finalisering van die L & D, soos ‘n  testament wat vaag en onduidelik is, sal die Meester uitstel aan die eksekuteur verleen. Die Meester bestudeer die L&D rekening en rig ‘n vraelys aan die eksekuteur, indien dit nodig geag word. Die eksekuteur is verplig om enige vrae ter bevrediging van die Meester te beantwoord.


Wanneer die Meester die L & D rekening goedkeur, moet dit vir ‘n tydperk van 21 dae ter insae lê by die Meester se kantoor, asook die naaste landdroshof. Indien enige skriftelike besware ontvang word, moet dit beantwoord word deur die eksekuteur soos voorgeskryf deur die Wet. Die eksekuteur kan voortgaan om die erfgename te betaal en bates oor te dra, sodra alle besware hanteer is. GEVOLGTREKKING MHI Prokureurs het ‘n toegewyde boedelafdeling , wat spesialiseer in boedelbeplanning, die opstel van testamente en administrasie van bestorwe boedels. In die meeste gevalle is die vertragings in die administrasie van ‘n bestorwe boedel te danke aan ‘n swak opgestelde testament en / of die eksekuteur se gebrek aan ervaring.

Geskryf deur Michelle Taljaard
Kandidaat Prokureur

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.



A2bThe application for liquidation and sequestration processes are often confused. Many people think that the processes are the same. However, there is a big difference between these two processes.

A simple way to describe liquidation is that liquidation is the winding up of a firm by selling off its free (un-pledged) assets to convert them into cash to pay the firm’s unsecured creditors. Before a liquidation application can be issued in court, a founding affidavit needs to be drafted. This affidavit will include all the details of the Applicant and / or Respondent. The Applicant is the person who wants to liquidate the company and the Respondent is the company. In the case where the Applicant is the company, there will be no Respondent. The affidavit will also include any details of the company, employees and creditors. A bond of security also needs to be signed for the purpose of the Master of the High Court.

Once the application is issued, the only people who receive this notice is the South African Revenue Services (SARS), the Master of the High Court, employees of the company and any trade unions. As soon as this is done, a Master’s certificate is obtained verifying the application, and a provisional liquidation order is granted.  A return date is then set, and all creditors are notified of the provisional liquidation through registered post and by placing the provisional order in two local newspapers. Should the Applicant’s attorneys receive no notice of intention to defend the matter, a final liquidation order is granted. The order together with the application is sent to the Master of the High Court and a liquidator will be appointed.

Sequestration is the preferred option for the individual who has exhausted all other options of resolution, and is now in a position where even if all their assets are sold, they would be left with such a high shortfall that it would be unreasonable to expect them to recover from this loss. A sequestration involves a little more administration work before a court date can be obtained. Before the Notice of Motion and Founding Affidavit are drafted, a valuer needs to be appointed in order to value the Applicant or Respondent’s estate. This needs to be done in order to ascertain whether the debtor is indeed over-indebted, and whether he / she has enough assets to provide a benefit for all creditors involved.

In the matter of a voluntary sequestration, the Applicant will be the party whose estate is to be sequestrated. The valuer needs to value the property of the Applicant on a forced sale scale. This will be calculated by subtracting 20% of the actual value of the property.

As soon as the valuer has made an estimate for the Applicant / Respondent’s estate, a Statement of Debtor’s Affairs needs to be handed in to the Master of the High Court for inspection by all creditors. This needs to be done no less than 14 or more than 30 days before the court date. A Notice of Surrender needs to be sent through registered post to all creditors to inform them that the Statement of Debtor’s Affairs is available for inspection.

The Notice of Surrender needs to be posted in two local newspapers and the Government Gazette no less than 14, or more than 30 days before the court date. Once all of the above-mentioned requirement has been adhered to, the notice of surrender can be annexed to the Founding Affidavit and can be heard by the court, no Bond of Security is needed at this point. A sequestration can only be heard by the High Court, whereas a liquidation can be heard either by a Magistrate’s Court or by the High Court, depending on the merits of the case.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.



A2bDie aansoek prosedures vir likwidasie of sekwestrasie word dikwels met mekaar verwar, en baie mense dink dat die prosesse dieselfde is. Daar is egter ‘n groot verskil tussen die twee.

‘n Eenvoudige definisie van likwidasie is die proses waardeur ’n maatskappy sy vry (onbeswaarde) bates verkoop, om sodoende die bates te omskep in kontant wat gebruik kan word om die firma se gesekureerde skuldeisers te betaal. Voordat ‘n aansoek om likwidasie deur die hof uitgereik kan word, moet ‘n beëdigde verklaring opgestel word. Hierdie verklaring sal alle besonderhede van die Applikant en / of Respondent insluit. Die Applikant verwys na die persoon wat die maatskappy wil likwideer en die Respondent is die maatskappy wat gelikwideer word. In die geval waar die Applikant die maatskappy self is, sal daar geen Respondent wees nie. Die beëdigde verklaring sal ook besonderhede van die maatskappy, werknemers en die krediteure insluit. ’n Sekerheidstelling moet ook vir die doel van die Meester van die Hooggeregshof onderteken word.

Sodra die aansoek uitgereik word, sal die balju afskrifte van die aansoek aan die Suid-Afrikaanse Inkomstediens (SAID), die Meester van die Hooggeregshof, werknemers van die maatskappy en enige vakbonde beteken. Sodra dit gedoen is, word ‘n meestersertifikaat verkry vir die verifikasie van die aansoek, en ‘n voorlopige likwidasiebevel word toegestaan. ‘n Keerdatum word dan vasgestel, en al die krediteure word in kennis gestel van die voorlopige likwidasie deur geregistreerde pos sowel as deur die plasing van die voorlopige bevel in twee plaaslike koerante. Indien die Applikant se prokureurs nie verdediging ontvang nie, sal ‘n finale likwidasiebevel toegestaan word. Die bevel tesame met die aansoek word na die Meester van die Hooggeregshof gestuur en ‘n likwidateur sal aangestel word.

Individu wat reeds alle ander opsies om hulle skulde te vereffen uitgeput het, sal gesekwestreer word, aangesien hulle hulself nou in ‘n posisie bevind waar,  selfs as al hul bates verkoop word, sou hulle steeds te veel uitstaande geld hê, en dit sou onredelik wees om te verwag dat hulle van die verlies herstel. ʼn Sekwestrasie behels meer administratiewe werk alvorens ‘n hof datum verkry kan word. Voordat die kennisgewing van die mosie en beëdigde verklaring opgestel word, moet ‘n waardeerder aangestel word om die Applikant of die Respondent se boedel te waardeer. Daar moet bepaal word of die skuldenaar inderdaad oorbelas is, en of hy/sy oor genoegsame bates beskik om  die skuld te kan delg.

In die geval van ‘n vrywillige sekwestrasie sal die Applikant die party wees wie se boedel gesekwestreer word. Die waardeerder moet die eiendom van die Applikant op ‘n gedwonge verkoopskaal  waardeer. Om dit te bereken word 20% vanaf die werklike waarde van die eiendom afgetrek.

Sodra ‘n beraming deur ‘n waardeerder gemaak is van die Applikant/Respondent se boedel, moet ‘n verklaring van die skuldenaar se sake aan die Meester van die Hooggeregshof oorhandig word. Dit moet nie minder as 14 of meer as 30 dae voor die hof datum gedoen word nie. ‘n Kennisgewing van oorgawe moet ook aan alle skuldeisers gestuur word, deur middel van geregistreerde pos, om hulle van die bogenoemde in kennis te stel.

Die kennisgewing van oorgawe moet in twee plaaslike koerante, sowel as in die Staatskoerant geplaas word,  nie minder as 14 of meer as 30 dae voor die hof datum. Sodra al die bogenoemde gedoen is, kan dit by die beëdigde verklaring aangeheg word en deur die hof aangehoor word. Geen sekerheidstelling is nodig nie.  ʼn Sekwestrasie kan slegs aangehoor word deur die Hooggeregshof, terwyl ‘n likwidasie deur ‘n Landdroshof of die Hooggeregshof aangehoor kan word, afhangende van die meriete van die saak.

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.



A3bThe Family Advocate has many duties but in the context of Divorce Law, they are mostly consulted for making sure that all Parenting Plans and divorce Consent Papers are in the best interest of any minor children involved. The public can, however, also have access to the Family Advocate and it is important to note that they offer a free service.

The roles of the Family Advocate include the following: to provide education to family members and to others involved in the systems serving the family and youth; to help identify the strengths and needs of families; to be a mediator between the system and the family by helping to educate professionals on the strengths and needs of the family; to help family members understand the different roles of the agencies involved in the system and how they may affect the family and assist families in identifying and utilizing necessary services.

A Family Advocate helps state and local agencies and systems adopt more strengths-based and family-driven programs, policies, and services. The focus is to better meet the needs of families and their youth who have mental illness, co-occurring disorders or substance use disorders and improve outcomes for all, including families, youth, and the agencies they utilize.

A Family Advocate also has the authority to draft Parenting Plans at no cost which will help provide the minor child with a stable and suitable schedule between the two parents. A Family Advocate cannot however provide for a maintenance amount as this falls under the jurisdiction of the maintenance court. Should a parent feel like they are not sure of their rights or responsibilities towards their minor child, the Family Advocate can be approached in order to arrange a meeting between the two parties to mediate the rights and responsibilities between the two parties. This process is also at no cost, however should one of the parties deny the meeting, the Family Advocate has no authority to subpoena them to attend the meeting.

The Family Advocate is a perfect remedy for parents who have their child’s best interest at heart and who aim to provide a stable environment for the child when both parents are no longer together.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.



A3bDie Gesinsadvokaat het baie pligte, maar in die konteks van Egskeidingsreg word hul meestal geraadpleeg om te verseker dat alle Ouerskap-planne en Skikkingsaktes in ʼn egskeiding in die beste belange van enige minderjarige kinders betrokke, geskied. Die publiek het egter ook toegang tot die Gesinsadvokaat en dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat hul gratis dienste aanbied.

Die rol van die Gesinsadvokaat sluit die volgende in: om familielede en ander wat betrokke in te lig rakende die onderskeie stelsels en regulasies wat in plek gestel is om die gesien en minderjariges te help, om te help met die identifisering van die sterkpunte en behoeftes van gesinne; om ‘n bemiddelaar aan te stel om die sterkpunte en behoeftes van die gesin te ontwikkel; om familielede te help om die verskillende rolle van die agentskappe wat betrokke is in die stelsel te verstaan, sowel as  hoe hulle die gesin kan beïnvloed en kan help in die identifiseringsproses en die optimale benutting van die dienste wat verskaf word.

‘n Gesinsadvokaat help Staats- en Plaaslike agentskappe en stelsels om sterker familie-gedrewe programme, standpunte en beleide aan te neem. Die fokus is om te voldoen aan die behoeftes van die families en enige minderjariges in die familie wat geestelike afwykings het, die voorkoms van afwykings, hetsy as gevolg van die misbruik van dwelmmiddels al dan nie, en om die omstandighede vir almal betrokke te verbeter – dit sluit familie, jeugdiges, en die agentskappe wat gebruik word in.

‘n Gesinsadvokaat het ook die outoriteit om, vry van enige kostes, Ouerskap-planne op te stel wat sal help te verseker dat daar ʼn stabiele en geskikte skedule, wat in die minderjarige se voordeel sal wees, tussen die twee ouers bestaan. ‘n Gesinsadvokaat kan egter nie voorsiening maak vir ‘n onderhoudsbedrag nie, aangesien dit onder die jurisdiksie van die onderhoudshof val. Indien ‘n ouer nie seker is van hul regte of verpligtinge teenoor hul minderjarige kind nie, kan die Gesinsadvokaat ‘n vergadering tussen die twee partye reël om die regte en verantwoordelikhede tussen die twee partye te bemiddel. Daar is ook geen kostes aan die proses verbonde nie, maar as een van die partye nie die vergadering wil bywoon nie, kan die Gesinsadvokaat nie die party dagvaar om teenwoordig te wees nie.

Die Gesinsadvokaat is ‘n perfekte oplossing vir die ouers wat hul kind se beste belange op die hart dra en wat beoog om ‘n stabiele omgewing vir die kind te maak wanneer beide ouers nie meer saam is nie.

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.



Reinett Joubert van MHI het die ander dames geïnspireer om blokkies te brei en te hekel en ons het die hulp van familie en vriende ingeroep om daarmee te help.

These blocks were sewn into blankets  with love by Marieta Nel (Riette Smuts’ mom) and a few small jerseys and booties joined the collection.

Reinett wanted these blankets for the children in the Tygerberg Cancer Ward. She contacted Latitia Pienaar, the Communications Officer at Tygerberg Hospital for the special delivery.


Seen here are Riëtte Smuts, Marieta Nel, Latitia Pienaar of Tygerberg, Jessica Coburn, Reinett Joubert and Ansie Hyman.


Latitia Pienaar in turn presented the blankets to Suster Bredenkamp and Me Jacobs, the Matron in charge of Pediatrics.


Latitia vertel dat die nood en behoeftes in die saal so groot is. Dit gebeur gereeld dat ‘n ouer ‘n siek kind dokter toe neem en dat die kind dadelik Tygerberg Hospitaal toe gestuur word sonder enige klere en toebehore of ‘n troosdingetjie.

Enigiemand is welkom om hulle te kontak om ‘n skenking te maak van toiletware en klere tot kombersies.

Die kontakbesonderhede is:
Laticia Pienaar
Hoof Kommunikasie Beampte
Tygerberg Hospitaal
Administrasiegebou (Wes)
Kamer 9, Grondvloer
Tel: 021 938 5454