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Month: July 2015

MHI PAINTS DOG BOXES FOR MANDELA DAY

MHI PAINTS DOG BOXES FOR MANDELA DAY

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This year the Dogbox.com Project 2015 took place at Tygervalley Shopping Centre in honour of Mandela Day. We had 67 minutes to paint dog boxes. The completed boxes each received a bag of dog food and a warm blanket for its new owner.

This gift is donated to a charity of your choice. Dogbox.com plan to host another project in September at the Centre.

Like last year, MHI’s girls were up for the challenge!

MHI entered 8 teams and UltraPro supplied the paint, rollers and brushes again this year. They also sponsored another 4 boxes and we quickly put more teams together.

Riëtte en haar suster Carin
Riëtte en haar suster Carin
Robert  van UltraPro en Mariska
Robert van UltraPro en Mariska
Liaan en Michelle aan die beplan.
Liaan en Michelle aan die beplan.
Ouma en die kleinkinders het ook kom verf.
Ouma en die kleinkinders het ook kom verf.

 

Saterdagoggend was die opwinding voelbaar tussen die deelnemers. MHI se meisies, families en vriende het saamgespan. Selfs Clarina Hanekom van Tin Can Town het kom verf!

Die besonderse span.
Die besonderse span.

Die hokke is weer geskenk aan die Tin Can Town inisiatief. Clarina se span beywer hulle om die mense en diere van Blikkiesdorp in Delft se lewens te verbeter. Sy het haar vrywilligers ingespan en al die hokke is gelaai en afgelewer aan die trotse nuwe eienaars.

Hierdie winter gaan nie meer so koud wees nie.
Hierdie winter gaan nie meer so koud wees nie.
Hierdie winter gaan nie meer so koud wees nie.
Hierdie winter gaan nie meer so koud wees nie.

And then we are proud to announce that MHI and Realty1 are the sponsors of the new and exciting Northern Hills magazine – a creation and product published by Paramount Media Pty Ltd situated in Cape Town.

Northern Hills a quarterly, coffee table publication filled with insightful reading material, interesting articles, wine, décor, legal, pet-care, food, financial & golf section. Each magazine , individually plastic wrapped and delivered by hand to the finest residential areas the Northern Suburbs have to offer.

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The online edition can be viewed on :

http://issuu.com/paramountmedia/docs/nh_online

Have a look at our legal article on Home Owners Associations.

YOU PURCHASE A PROPERTY IN A NEW SECTIONAL TITLE DEVELOPMENT: HOW LONG DO YOU HAVE TO WAIT?

YOU PURCHASE A PROPERTY IN A NEW SECTIONAL TITLE DEVELOPMENT: HOW LONG DO YOU HAVE TO WAIT?

A3bThe establishment and operation of a new sectional title scheme is regulated by the Sectional Titles Act No. 15 of 1985 (“the Act”). The Act contains strict requirements that must be met in order for a sectional title scheme to be opened in a Deeds Office and subsequent transfers of units in the Scheme to end buyers take place. For purposes of this article it is assumed that the opening of the sectional title scheme and transfers to end buyers will take place simultaneously in the Deeds Office.

The content of the agreement is an outline of specific events that must take place before you can become the owner of a unit.  The latter is a good indication of how long you have to wait before you can harness the removal truck.

Special attention should be given to the following conditions precedent that may appear in the purchase agreement:

  1. 1. Is the existence of the development subject to the sale of a specific number of units (pre- sales) before the development is considered viable? This condition usually stipulate that the agreement between the parties will only continue if the Seller could succeed with the sale of a certain amount of units in the development by a specific date.
  2. Is the agreement subject to obtaining development financing by the Seller/developer by a certain date? Therefore envisages the Seller to apply for financing from a financial institution to, inter alia, finance the construction of the buildings which the Scheme will consist of?

Non – compliance of the conditions precedent within the prescribed periods means that a valid purchase agreement between the parties was not established and the agreement has lapsed. The dates referred to in the said conditions precedent is an indication of when the Seller intends to proceed with the development full steam, as the latter will only be possible after the fulfillment of said conditions precedent.

Other important clauses that indicate the passage of time are the following:

  • The planned date of registration of the Scheme in the relevant Deeds Office;
  • The planned date of occupancy of the unit by the Purchaser, and whether it corresponds with the date of registration of the unit.

The Purchaser should note that the Seller/developer can only start with construction of the buildings after development funding is secured, and accordingly from the date of fulfillment of the conditions precedent. Depending on the extent of the development it can take months before construction is completed, and occupation certificates for the Units are issued by the Municipality.

Pursuant to section 6 of the Act, the land surveyor can only start site measurements to draft sectional plans for the new Scheme after the buildings have been completed as the draft sectional plan is prepared from an actual survey of the buildings. After surveying and completion of the draft plans, they are sent to the Surveyor General for approval in terms of section 7 of the Act, which process can take approximately 4 – 6 weeks on average.

Only upon receipt of the approved sectional plans from the Surveyor General, the processing of transfer documents by the conveyancers can begin.  The conveyancer requires originally approved sectional plans for the processing of the transfer documentation as the actual sizes of units as reflected in the said plans must be used.

The conveyancer must send the approved sectional plans upon receipt thereof to the local municipality (within whose jurisdiction the Scheme will fall), so that the municipality can list the new Scheme, as well as record each unit within the Scheme on their system. This process is essential to ensure that every owner of a unit receives an account from the municipality after registration of the Scheme. It is also compulsory for obtaining a rates clearance certificate from the Municipality without which registration of the Scheme will not be possible.

It is clear from the above that the groundwork for the opening of a Scheme alone may take several months depending on how long the construction of the buildings of the Scheme, the duration and the time period before sectional plans are approved and the listing of units on a municipal system is recorded.  Only after the occurrence of the above, the normal transfer process between the seller and the end buyer can commence.

It is recommended that the Purchaser also pay attention to the following conditions in the purchase agreement:

  • Whether the Purchaser will acquire a parking bay together with the purchase of a unit , and if so, whether the parking bay will be registered as a separate notarial exclusive use area or whether it will be dealt with under Section 27A of the Act and awarded to the unit by the developer in the rules of the Scheme;
  • Whether the Seller/developer reserved for himself a future right of extension of the Scheme. The Purchaser is in such case entitled to review the plans for future extension of the Scheme;
  • Whether the Seller intends to develop the development in phases, so that it can be established what facilities that form part of the development, will only be completed in a later phase.

It is clear from the above that the registration of a unit that is part of a new sectional title scheme development form part of a lengthy process and buyers would be wise not to be in a hurry to move in.

REFERENCE LIST:

The Sectional Titles Act 95 of 1986

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

JY KOOP ‘N EIENDOM IN ‘N NUWE DEELTITELONTWIKKELING: HOE LANK MOET JY WAG?

JY KOOP ‘N EIENDOM IN ‘N NUWE DEELTITELONTWIKKELING: HOE LANK MOET JY WAG?

A3bDie totstandkoming en die werking van ‘n nuwe deeltitelskema word deur die Wet op Deeltitels Nr 15 van 1985 (“die Wet”) gereguleer.

Die Wet bevat streng vereistes waaraan voldoen moet word ten einde ‘n deeltitelskema in ‘n  Aktekantoor te open en daaropvolgende oordragte van eenhede na eindkopers in die Skema te registreer.

Vir doeleindes van hierdie artikel word aangeneem dat die opening van die deeltitelskema en die oordragte na eindkopers gelyktydig in die Aktekantoor gaan plaasvind.

Die inhoud van die koopooreenkoms is ‘n riglyn van bepaalde gebeurtenisse wat eers moet plaasvind voordat u die eienaar van ‘n eenheid kan word.  Laasgenoemde is ‘n goeie aanduiding van hoe lank u sal moet wag voor u die vervoermaatksappy kan kontak.

Daar moet veral  aandag geskenk word aan die volgende opskortende voorwaardes wat in die koopooreenkoms kan voorkom:

  1. Is die voortbestaan van die ontwikkeling onderworpe aan die verkoop van ‘n spesifieke hoeveelheid eenhede (voorafverkope) voordat die ontwikkeling as lewensvatbaar beskou word? Hierdie voorwaarde stipuleer gewoonlik dat die ooreenkoms tussen die partye slegs sal voortgaan as die Verkoper daarin kon slaag om ‘n bepaalde hoeveelheid van die eenhede in die ontwikkeling teen ‘n spesifieke datum kon verkoop.
  1. Is die ooreenkoms onderhewig aan die verkryging van ontwikkelingsfinansiering deur die Verkoper/ontwikkelaar teen ‘n sekere datum? Dus beoog die Verkoper om aansoek te doen vir finansiering by ‘n finansiële instelling om onder andere, die oprigting van die geboue waaruit die Skema gaan bestaan, te finansier?

Nie-nakoming van die opskortende voorwaardes binne die voorgeskrewe tydperke beteken dat ‘n geldige koopooreenkoms tussen die partye nie tot stand gekom het nie en die ooreenkoms  verval het.  Die datums na verwys in gemelde opskortende voorwaardes is ‘n aanduiding van wanneer die Verkoper  beoog om volstoom met die ontwikkeling te begin, aangesien lg eers moontlik sal wees na vervulling van al die genoemde voorwaardes.

Ander belangrike klousules wat die tydsverloop kan aantoon is die volgende:

  • Die beoogde datum van registrasie van die Skema in die betrokke Aktekantoor;
  • Die beoogde datum van okkupasie van die eenheid deur die Koper, en of dit ooreenstem met die registrasiedatum van die eenheid.

Die Koper moet daarop let dat die Verkoper/ontwikkelaar eers met  bouwerk van die geboue  kan begin nadat ontwikkelingsfinansiering vir die oprigting van die Skema  bekom is, dus na die datum vir die vervulling van die opskortende voorwaardes aangebreek het.  Afhangende van die omvang van die ontwikkeling kan dit maande neem voordat die bouwerk voltooi is, en okkupasiesertifikate daarvoor uitgereik word deur die Munisipaliteit.

Ingevolge artikel 6 van die Wet kan die landmeter wat die deelplanne vir die nuwe Skema  opmeet, eers op die perseel begin met opmetings nadat die geboue van die Skema voltooi is aangesien die konsepdeelplan opgestel word vanaf ‘n werklike opmeting van die geboue.   Na opmeting en voltooiing van die deelplanne, word dit na die Landmeter-Generaal gestuur vir goedkeuring ingevolge artikel 7 van die Wet, welke proses gemiddeld tussen 4 – 6 weke kan duur.

Eers by ontvangs van die goedgekeurde deelplanne vanaf die Landmeter-Generaal kan die verwerking van die transportdokumente deur die Aktebesorgers begin.  Laasgenoemde benodig oorspronklik goedgekeurde deelplanne vir die verwerking van die transport aangesien die werklike groottes van eenhede soos gereflekteer op die goedgekeurde deelplanne, gebruik moet word.

Die Aktebesorger moet die goedgekeurde deelplanne by ontvangs daarvan na die plaaslike munisipaliteit (binne wie se jurisdiksie die Skema sal val) stuur, sodat die munisipaliteit die nuwe Skema, sowel as rekord van elke eenheid binne die skema op hulle stelsel kan noteer.     Hierdie proses is noodsaaklik om te verseker dat elke eienaar van ‘n eenheid na registrasie van die Skema munisipale rekeninge vanaf die munisipaliteit ontvang, en ook verpligtend vir die verkryging van ‘n belastinguitklaringsertifikaat, waarsonder registrasie van die Skema nie kan plaasvind nie.

Dit is duidelik uit bogenoemde dat die aanvoorwerk vir die opening van die Skema alleen etlike maande kan duur afhangende van hoe lank die bouwerk van die geboue van die Skema duur, asook die tydsperiode alvorens deelplanne goedgekeur word en  eenhede op ‘n munisipale stelsel gelaai word.  Eers na die plaasvind van bogemelde kan die normale transportproses tussen die Verkoper en die eindkoper begin.

Dit word aanbeveel dat die Koper ook aan die volgende voorwaardes in die kontrak aandag skenk:

  • Of hy/sy ‘n parkeerplek bekom saam met die aankoop van ‘n eenheid, en indien wel, of die parkeerplek as ‘n aparte notariële uitsluitlike gebruiksgebied geregistreer sal word, of ingevolge Art 27A deur die ontwikkelaar in die reëls van die Skema aan die eenheid toegeken word;
  • Of die Verkoper/ontwikkelaar vir homself ‘n reg van uitbreiding van die Skema voorbehou? Die Koper is in so geval geregtig daarop om die planne vir toekomstige uitbreidings van die Skema te besigtig;
  • Of die Verkoper beoog om die ontwikkeling in fases te ontwikkel sodat vasgestel kan word watter fasiliteite wat deel vorm van die ontwikkeling, eers in ‘n latere fase voltooi sal wees.

Die registrasie van ‘n eenheid wat deel is van ‘n nuwe deeltitelskema, vorm dus deel van ‘n  langsame proses en Kopers sal wys wees om nie oorhaastig te wees om in te trek nie.

BRONNELYS:

Die Wet op Deeltitels 95 van 1986

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

WHEN IS A TENANT AN ILLEGAL OCCUPANT?

WHEN IS A TENANT AN ILLEGAL OCCUPANT?

A2BWhere the Contract of Lease is breached in any way by the tenant and he or she after receiving notice thereof has not remedied such a breach within the period agreed upon, then the landlord may cancel the contract. The tenant will be found to be an illegal occupier in this instance.

Where a tenant fails to perform as agreed upon in his Lease agreement, he will be found to be in breach of that agreement. An example of this is a failure to pay rent timeously or at all. The landlord must notify the tenant in writing of his decision to terminate the contract by means of a letter of cancellation, allowing the tenant a reasonable period, or such timeframe as agreed upon in terms of such a lease, to vacate the property.

If the tenant chooses to ignore the notice of cancellation of the lease agreement by remaining on the property and continuing to use and enjoy it, the tenant will be regarded as an illegal occupier of the property. The same applies if the tenant continues to occupy the property after the expiration of the initial lease period. An illegal occupier may be evicted from the rented property by the landlord or owner. This will be done at a Magistrate’s or High Court and for that the services of a lawyer will be required.

There is no longer a Common Law right to evict someone. Instead the owner or landlord must follow the procedures and provisions of the Prevention of Illegal Eviction and Unlawful Occupation of land Act 19 of 1998 (hereinafter referred to as the “PIE Act”). The tenant must be notified of the pending action, by means of a Notice of Intention to Evict and this must be done at least 14 days before the date of the court hearing. This notice must also be sent to the respective Municipality involved.

On the date of the hearing, the court will consider factors such as whether the person is an unlawful occupier, whether the owner has reasonable grounds for eviction and alternative accommodation available to the tenant. It is now considered a criminal offence to evict someone without a court order to that effect. Constructive eviction, for instance, where a landlord cuts the water or electricity supply to the property in order to “drive” the tenants out, is a criminal offence.

The type of action or application that your legal representative will bring will vary depending on the facts and circumstances of the matter. Such actions or applications can be heard in the Magistrate’s or High Court, depending on the value of the occupation and not the leased property value. The lease agreement may also have a clause embodied in it where the parties agree to a particular court’s jurisdiction, where upon that will be followed. If the court proceedings are successful a Warrant of Ejectment may be issued, whereupon the owner or landlord may proceed with the eviction of the illegal occupier.

Once the owner or the proprietor of the leased property has followed all the prescribed procedures as laid out in the PIE Act and they have established that their tenant is considered an unlawful occupier then they may proceed with the above-mentioned steps in order to evict them from their property.

An unlawful occupier may be removed from the premises upon the instruction of an Eviction Order / Warrant of Eviction with the assistance of the Sheriff of the respective court at a minimal fee. The steps laid out in the PIE Act are simple to understand and follow allowing a transparent and fair chance to both the landlord and the tenant in these difficult situations.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

CONTRACTING WITH MINORS IN A DIGITAL CONTEXT

CONTRACTING WITH MINORS IN A DIGITAL CONTEXT

A1BIn this article, we examine whether contracts entered online by minors, using their parents’ credit cards, are legally binding in the specific context of social media such as Facebook.

Both Common law and legislation deal with the capacity of minors who enter into different types of contracts. According to the Children’s Act, 38 of 2005 a minor is a person between the ages of seven and 18 years. In terms of common law a minor does not have sufficient capacity to incur binding obligations under a contract and must obtain the assistance or consent of their guardian to do so. This consent can be given before the contract is concluded or thereafter, in which case it is seen as ratification of the contract. There are exceptions to this rule, which may be found in various pieces of legislation as well as in common law, such as contracts where the minor obtains only rights and no duties (e.g. a donation).

A minor can escape liability even when they have been bound in terms of the contract (i.e. where the guardian has assisted the minor in the conclusion of the contract, consented to or ratified the contract). This can be done where the contract was prejudicial to him or her at the time that it was concluded. The court may then, on application, set the contract aside and order that each party be placed in the same position as what they were in before the contract had been concluded.

Facebook is currently involved in an ongoing class-action lawsuit. In this lawsuit, a class of parents in America are pressing their claim that Facebook should change how it handles online transactions by minors.

Attorneys for the parents in the above case note that it is important that Facebook has knowledge of a user’s actual age but still treats children the same as adult users when it comes to taking their money.

One of the biggest issues here is that reciprocal performance, being the payment of money via credit or debit card and the child obtaining credits, takes place almost immediately. Therefore, if the parent were to be refunded, the minor would be unjustifiably enriched using the credits.

The system, that Facebook currently employs, is therefore problematic since it takes advantage of children who may not fully understand the contracts that they are entering into when they purchase game credits. Furthermore, should the parents be immediately refunded in the current system, it may lead to situations where the parent consents to the purchases and then after the child obtains the enjoyment from the credits, request that their accounts be credited due to a ‘lack of consent’.

It is therefore clear that this system of payment should be changed. We should obtain clarity on how to deal with this in South Africa once the class-action suit in America has been concluded and a solution has been reached. At present, it seems that there will be no alternative for parents whose children overspend or use their credit or debit cards, without permission. If your child has, a Facebook gaming habit it is a good idea to keep a close eye on your wallet until we have clarity on the recourse available to parents who find themselves in this situation.

Bibliography

  • Children’s Act 38 of 2005
  • Hutchison D, Pretorius C, Naude T, Du Plessis J, Eiselen S, Floyd T, Hawthorn L, The Law of Contract in South Africa, 2nd Ed, (2009) 151-152.

“Facebook to Face US Lawsuit Over Kid’s Purchases” News 24 (3 March 2015) http://www.fin24.com/Tech/News/Facebook-to-face-US-lawsuit-over-kids-purchases-20150312

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice.

WANNEER IS ‘N HUURDER ’N ONWETTIGE BESETTER?

WANNEER IS ‘N HUURDER ’N ONWETTIGE BESETTER?

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Indien ’n huurkontrak op enige wyse deur die huurder verbreek word, en die huurder na die ontvangs van die kennisgewing, nie die nodige reggestellings binne die afgespreekte tydperk aanbring nie, kan die verhuurder die kontrak kanselleer. Die huurder sal in die geval dan as ‘n onwettige bewoner beskou word. 

Indien ‘n huurder versuim om sy pligte te verrig soos ooreengekom in sy Huurooreenkoms, sal hy skuldig bevind word aan die verbreking van die ooreenkoms. ʼn Voorbeeld hiervan is ‘n wanneer die huurder versuim om sy huur betyds te betaal. Die verhuurder moet die huurder skriftelik in kennis stel van sy besluit om die hurrkontrak te kanselleer, sodat die huurder in ‘n redelike tydperk, of sodanige die tydperk ooreengekom in terme van die ‘n huurkontrak, die eiendom ontruim.

Indien die huurder kies om die kennisgewing van kansellasie van die huurkontrak te ignoreer en voort te gaan om die eiendom te gebruik, sal die huurder as ‘n onwettige bewoner van die eiendom beskou word. Dieselfde beginsels geld wanneer die huurder die eiendom beset na die verstryking van die aanvanklike huurtydperk. ‘n Onwettige bewoner mag deur die eienaar vanuit die eiendom uitgesit word. Hierdie proses sal in ‘n landdroshof of hooggeregshof plaasvind en dus sal die dienste van ‘n prokureur nodig wees.

Daar bestaan nie meer ʼn gemeenskaplike reg om iemand uit te sit nie. Alle eienaars en verhuurders moet die prosedures en bepalings van die Voorkoming van Onwettige Uitsetting en Onregmatige Besetting van Grond, Wet 19 van 1998 volg (hierna verwys as ” PIE Wet”). Voordat Uitsetting kan plaasvind, moet die huurder in kennis gestel word van die hangende aksie teen hom. Die huurder moet minste 14 dae voor die datum van die verhoor in kennis gestel word van die verhoor datum en adresse. Hierdie kennisgewing moet ook na die betrokke Munisipaliteit gestuur word.

Op die datum van die verhoor, sal die hof verskillende faktore oorweeg, soos of die huurder ‘n onregmatige besetter is, of die eienaar redelike gronde vir uitsetting het en hulle sal ook alternatiewe akkommodasie vir die huurder oorweeg. Al hierdie faktore sal in die hof oorweeg word alvorens die besluit geneem word of die bevel gegee sal word, al dan nie. Dit word tans as ‘n kriminele oortreding beskou om iemand uit te sit sonder ‘n hofbevel. Konstruktiewe uitsetting, waar die verhuurder die water of elektrisiteit afsny, is onwettig en ‘n kriminele oortreding.

Die tipe aksie of aansoek wat u regsverteenwoordiger sal voorhou, sal afhang van die feite en omstandighede van die saak. Hierdie aksies of aansoeke sal in die landdroshof of hooggeregshof aangehoor word. Indien die hof verrigtinge suksesvol is, sal ‘n lasbrief vir uitsetting uitgereik word, waarna die eienaar of verhuurder met die uitsetting van die onwettige bewoner mag voortgaan.

Daar is sekere klousules wat altyd in ‘n huurooreenkoms moet wees, om beide partye te beskerm teen wanbetaling of verbreking. Hierdie Klousules sluit onder andere in; tydsbepalings, hof jurisdiksie en ook koste beslissing indien ‘n party hof toe wil gaan.

Die PIE Wet stel sonder omhaal die stappe en prosedures wat gevolg moet word om voort te gaan met ‘n uitsettingsbevel. Verskeie definisies en interpretasies van ander terme word ook omskryf ten einde die pligte van huurders en verhuurders in die Huurooreenkomste uiteen te sit..

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

MINDERJARIGES, KONTRAKTE EN DIE DIGITALE ERA

MINDERJARIGES, KONTRAKTE EN DIE DIGITALE ERA

A1BHierdie artikel handel oor die vraagstuk of kontrakte wat deur minderjariges, met hul ouers se kredietkaarte, aangegaan is bindend is met spesifieke verwysing na sosiale mediaplatforms, soos Facebook.

Beide die gemenereg en wetgewing maak voorsiening vir bepalings rakende minderjariges se reg om verskillende tipes kontrakte aan te gaan. Volgens die Kinderwet, 38 van 2005 is ‘n minderjarige, ‘n persoon tussen die ouderdom van 7 en agtien jaar. Volgens die gemenereg het ‘n minderjarige nie die reg om bindende verpligtinge aan te gaan ingevolge ‘n kontrak nie, en moet die hulp of toestemming van die betrokke minderjarige se voog verkry word, alvorens ʼn kontrak aangegaan kan word. Die toestemming kan gegee word voordat die kontrak gesluit word of daarna, in welke geval dit gesien word as bekragtiging van die kontrak. Daar kom uitsonderings op hierdie reël voor, wat gevind kan word in verskeie stukke wetgewing, sowel as in die gemene reg, soos kontrakte waar die minderjarige net regte en geen verpligtinge verkry (bv. ‘n donasie).

‘n Minderjarige kan aanspreeklikheid vermy, selfs wanneer hulle gebind is in terme van die kontrak (d.w.s. waar die ouer die minderjarige bygestaan het ​​in die sluiting van die kontrak, daartoe toegestem het of die kontrak daarna bekragtig het). Dit kan gedoen word in die geval waar die kontrak nadelig is vir die minderjarige ten die tyde van die kontraksluiting. Die hof kan dan op aansoek, die kontrak tersydestel en las dat alle betrokke party in dieselfde posisie geplaas word, as wat hulle was voor die kontrak gesluit is.

Facebook is tans betrokke by ‘n deurlopende klasaksie regsgeding waar ouers in Amerika eis dat Facebook die wyse waarop aanlyn transaksies deur minderjariges hanteer word verander.

Prokureurs stel dat dit belangrik is dat Facebook kennis dra van ‘n gebruiker se werklike ouderdom, maar kinders word nog steeds dieselfde as volwasse gebruikers behandel wanneer geld (die sluiting van kontrakte) betrokke is.

Een van die grootste probleme is dat wedersydse prestasie, synde die betaling van geld via kredietkaart of debietkaart en die kind krediete verwerf, byna onmiddellik plaasvind. Daarom, as die ouer terugbetaal word, sou die minderjarige onregverdig verryk word deur die gebruik van die krediete.

Die stelsel wat Facebook tans gebruik is problematies aangesien dit minderjariges misbruik wat nie die kontrakte wat hulle aangaan, wanneer hulle krediete koop om aanlyn speletjies te speel, ten volle verstaan nie​​. Verder skep die huidige stelsel die moontlikheid van situasies waar ouers, wat onmiddellik terugbetaal moet word, toestem tot die aankope en dan nadat die kind die krediete verkry en gebruik het, versoek dat hul rekeninge gekrediteer word as gevolg van ‘n ‘gebrek aan toestemming’.

Dit is duidelik dat hierdie betrokke stelsel van betaling verander moet word en dat daar duidelikheid verkry moet word oor hoe om hierdie betrokke situasie in Suid-Afrika te hanteer, nadat ’n uitspraak rakende die klasaksie in Amerika gelewer is. Op die oomblik, blyk dit dat daar geen oplossing is, vir ouers wie se kinders te veel geld bestee, of hul krediet of debiet kaarte sonder hul toestemming gebruik nie. Indien jou kind van Facebook speletjies hou is dit dalk ‘n goeie idee om ‘n ogie te hou oor jou beursie totdat daar duidelikheid is oor die verhaalregte beskikbaar vir ouers wat hulself in hierdie situasie bevind.

Verwysings Lys

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.